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AS Rank: AS 16509 -- Information for a single AS: AS Relationship Table

This page presents the BETA version of AS Rank, CAIDA's ranking of Autonomous Systems (AS) (which approximately map to Internet Service Providers) and organizations (Orgs) (which are a collection of one or more ASes). This ranking is derived from topological data collected by CAIDA's Archipelago Measurement Infrastructure and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing data collected by the Route Views Project and RIPE NCC.

ASes and Orgs are ranked by their customer cone size, which is the number of their direct and indirect customers. Note: We do not have data to rank ASes (ISPs) by traffic, revenue, users, or any other non-topological metric.

Download Data: AS Relationship Data   AS Organization   AS Classification
Feedback: asrank-feedback@caida.org

AS Relationship Table Help
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Dataset:

AS relationship information for AS 16509 is shown below.
To select a different AS, enter the AS number associated with the AS, the name of the AS, or the name of the Org associated with the AS:

 
Map for AS#16509 was not created!
AS number: 16509
AS name: AMAZON-02
Org name: Amazon.com, Inc.
AS rank: 3196
Country: US
Customer cone size: 4
AS transit degree:
59 22 169 3 1
Provider Peer Customer Sibling
Type:  En 
Position in Ranking AS Relationship Table AS Relationship (Geo) Graph AS Relationship Graph AS Link Geo Map Corrections

The relationship table below displays the neighbors of AS 16509, and each neighbor's inferred relationship type with AS 16509.

Table shows of 194 neighbor ASes,  sorted by  relationship type and AS rank, with details.

neighbor type known locations (hideshow cities)
AS rank AS AS name AS type(s) Org name
1 3356 LEVEL3  Tr/Ac  Level 3 Communications, Inc.  ↑ provider

San Francisco, Seattle, Los Angeles, Dallas, St. Louis, Atlanta, Miami, Washington, D.C., New York City9

Dublin1

London1

Paris1

Hoofddorp1

Frankfurt Am Main1

Stockholm1

Warsaw1

Beijing1
3 1299 TELIANET  Tr/Ac  TeliaSonera AB  ↑ provider

Baotou, Handan, Tianjin3

Federal1

Amsterdam1

Seoul1
4 2914 NTT-COMMUN...  Tr/Ac  NTT America, Inc.  ↑ provider

Seattle, Pinole, Hayward, Santa Clara, Los Angeles, Houston, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, Sterling, New York City, Groton12

Chek Lap Kok Airport, Hong Kong2

Osaka, Tokyo2

Madrid1

London1

Paris1

Hoofddorp1

Frankfurt Am Main1

Rome1

Prague1

Podgorica1

Warsaw1

Sofia1

Bucharest1

Bangkok1

Beijing1

Taipei1

Mascot1
5 3257 GTT-BACKBONE  Tr/Ac  Tinet Spa  ↑ provider

Seattle, Palo Alto, Redmond, San Jose, Los Angeles, Irvine, Washington, D.C., New York City, Cambridge9

Paris, Marseille2

Madrid1

London1

Hoofddorp1

Frankfurt Am Main1

Milano1

Stockholm1

Warsaw1
6 6762 SEABONE-NET  Tr/Ac  TELECOM ITALIA SPARKLE S.p.A.  ↑ provider

Miami, Ashburn2

Sao Paulo, Rio De Janeiro2

London1

Marseille1

Frankfurt Am Main1

Milano1

Seoul1
7 6453 AS6453  Tr/Ac  TATA COMMUNICATIONS (AMERICA) INC  ↑ provider

Shenyang1

Tokyo1
11 3549 LVLT-3549  Tr/Ac  Level 3 Communications, Inc.  ↑ provider

Redmond, Madison, Youngstown3

Beijing, Nanjing2

Ottawa1

Amsterdam1

Copenhagen1

Bangkok1

Taipei1

Seoul1
14 4436 AS-GTT-4436  Tr/Ac  nLayer Communications, Inc.  ↑ provider

Sofia1
15 209 CENTURYLIN...  Tr/Ac  Qwest Communications Company, LLC  ↑ provider

Urumqi, Zhengzhou, Nanjing, Fuzhou, Hangzhou5

Fremont, Chicago, Alexandria3

Ji-Parana, Rolim De Moura, Goiania3

Nice1

Brugg1

Stockholm1

Chiyoda1
17 3491 BTN-ASN  Tr/Ac  Beyond The Network America, Inc.  ↑ provider

Bangkok1
20 3320 DTAG  Tr/Ac  Deutsche Telekom AG  ↑ provider

San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, San Jose, Yuba City, French Camp, Placerville, Ft Collins, Arvada, Wheat Ridge, Littleton, Englewood, Denver, Aurora, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Ashburn, Alexandria, Brockton19

Berlin1

Bratislava1

Bangalore1

Beijing1

Taipei1
23 12956 Telefonica  Tr/Ac  Telefonica International Wholesale Services, SL  ↑ provider

Mission1

Toronto1

Berlin1
33 9498 BBIL-AP  Tr/Ac  BHARTI Airtel Ltd.  ↑ provider
38 43531 IXREACH  Tr/Ac  IX Reach Ltd  ↑ provider
40 2516 KDDI  Tr/Ac  KDDI CORPORATION  ↑ provider

Beijing, Tianjin2

New York1

Lisbon1

Dublin1

Arvika1

Copenhagen1

Bangalore1

Bangkok1
43 4766 KIXS-AS-KR  Tr/Ac  Korea Telecom  ↑ provider

Olalla, Daly City, San Francisco, Pinole, Fairfield, Scotts Valley, Santa Clara, San Jose, Sacramento, Fresno, Marina Del Rey, Minneapolis, St Paul, Falls Church, Westfield, West Hartford, Springfield, Monson, Malden, Brockton, Newburyport21

Bochum, Frankfurt Am Main, Nuremberg3

Arvika, Backe, Sollentuna3

Rabat1

Amsterdam1

Nice1

Torino1

Brugg1

Prague1

Bratislava1

Riga1

Tel Aviv1

Atyrau1

Taipei1

Seoul1
44 4637 ASN-TELSTR...  Tr/Ac  Telstra Global - Customer AS Number  ↑ provider

Frankfurt Am Main1

Bangkok1
53 4755 TATACOMM-AS  Tr/Ac  TATA Communications formerly VSNL is Leading ISP  ↑ provider

Atlanta, Jacksonville2

Bangkok1

Taipei1
92 18101 RELIANCE-C...  Tr/Ac  RELIANCE-MEN-AS-IN  ↑ provider
216 9299 IPG-AS-AP  Tr/Ac  Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company  ↑ provider

Zurich1
567 9957 KINX-AS  Tr/Ac  KINX, Inc.  ↑ provider
880 17408 ABOVE-AS-AP  Tr/Ac  AboveNet Communications Taiwan  ↑ provider
8 6939 HURRICANE  Tr/Ac  Hurricane Electric, Inc.  ↔ peer

Seattle, Palo Alto, Los Angeles, Dallas, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, Ashburn, New York City9

Paris, Marseille2

Osaka, Tokyo2

Sao Paulo1

Dublin1

Madrid1

London1

Hoofddorp1

Z??Rich1

Frankfurt Am Main1

Milano1

Oslo1

Prague1

Stockholm1

Bangkok1

Seoul1
9 2828 XO-AS15  Tr/Ac  XO Communications  ↔ peer

Halifax1

Gravatai1

Frankfurt Am Main1

Bologna1

Seoul1
10 1273 CW  Tr/Ac  Cable and Wireless Worldwide plc  ↔ peer

Guangzhou1
13 6461 ABOVENET  Tr/Ac  Abovenet Communications, Inc  ↔ peer

Dallas1

Seoul1
16 9002 RETN-AS  Tr/Ac  RETN Limited  ↔ peer
18 20485 TRANSTELECOM  Tr/Ac  Closed Joint Stock Company TransTeleCom  ↔ peer

Seoul1
21 7018 ATT-INTERNET4  Tr/Ac  AT&T Services, Inc.  ↔ peer

San Francisco, Redmond, Ft Collins, Denver, Mission5

Burnaby, Ottawa2

Shijiazhuang, Beijing2

Uberlandia1

Seoul1
22 12389 ROSTELECOM-AS  Tr/Ac  PJSC Rostelecom  ↔ peer
24 7473 SINGTEL-AS-AP  Tr/Ac  Singapore Telecommunications Ltd  ↔ peer
26 3216 SOVAM-AS  Tr/Ac  OJSC "Vimpelcom"  ↔ peer

Yuba City, Placerville, Midway City, Denver, Aurora, Colorado Springs, Pueblo, Houston, Mission9

Hong Kong1
28 7922 COMCAST-7922  Tr/Ac  Comcast Cable Communications, Inc.  ↔ peer

Nuremberg1

Bangkok1
30 5580 HIBERNIA  Tr/Ac  Hibernia Networks (Netherlands) BV  ↔ peer

Rabat1

Amsterdam1

Seoul1
31 8359 MTS  Tr/Ac  MTS PJSC  ↔ peer
32 20764 RASCOM-AS  Tr/Ac  CJSC RASCOM  ↔ peer
34 8928 INTEROUTE  Tr/Ac  Interoute Communications Limited  ↔ peer

Rome1
36 262589 (no data)  Tr/Ac  INTERNEXA Brasil Operadora de Telecomunicações S.A  ↔ peer
37 286 KPN  Tr/Ac  KPN B.V.  ↔ peer

Los Angeles, Ashburn, New York City3

London1

Hoofddorp1
41 18881 (no data)  Tr/Ac  Global Village Telecom  ↔ peer

Mission1

Stockholm1

Bangkok1
42 6830 LGI-UPC  Tr/Ac  Liberty Global Operations B.V.  ↔ peer

Burbank, Alexandria2
45 12989 HWNG  Tr/Ac  Eweka Internet Services B.V.  ↔ peer

San Francisco, Seattle, Los Angeles, Dallas, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, Washington, D.C., New York City9

Rio De Janeiro1

Bangkok1

Seoul1
46 28917 Fiord-AS  Tr/Ac  LLC "TRC FIORD"  ↔ peer

Hoofddorp1
49 16735 (no data)  Tr/Ac  ALGAR TELECOM S/A  ↔ peer
50 4826 VOCUS-BACK...  Tr/Ac  Vocus National DSL Network  ↔ peer
51 8220 COLT  Tr/Ac  COLT Technology Services Group Limited  ↔ peer

Los Angeles, Madison2
52 10026 PACNET  Tr/Ac  Pacnet Global Ltd.  ↔ peer
55 11537 ABILENE  Tr/Ac  Internet2  ↔ peer
56 1221 ASN-TELSTRA  Tr/Ac  Telstra Pty Ltd.  ↔ peer
58 11164 INTERNET2-...  Tr/Ac  Internet2  ↔ peer
63 9304 HUTCHISON-...  Tr/Ac  Hutchison Global Communications  ↔ peer

Goiania, Uberlandia2
65 8218 NEO-ASN  Tr/Ac  Neo Telecoms S.A.S.  ↔ peer

Clemson1

Marseille1
68 33891 CORE-BACKBONE  Tr/Ac  Core-Backbone GmbH  ↔ peer
86 2497 IIJ  Tr/Ac  Internet Initiative Japan Inc.  ↔ peer
87 577 BACOM  Tr/Ac  Bell Canada  ↔ peer

Santa Clara, Modesto, Hyattsville, Salisbury, Springfield, Woburn, Newburyport7

Gunzenhausen1

Chiyoda1
93 6663 TTI-NET  Tr/Ac  Euroweb Romania S.A.  ↔ peer
98 12874 FASTWEB  Tr/Ac  Fastweb SpA  ↔ peer

San Francisco, Redmond, Fayetteville, St Robert, Columbus, Brockton6

Winnipeg1
103 3267 RUNNET  Tr/Ac  State Institute of Information Technologies and Telecommunications (SIIT&T "Info  ↔ peer
107 4230 (no data)  Tr/Ac  CLARO S.A.  ↔ peer

Hamburg1
108 13237 LAMBDANET-AS  Tr/Ac  euNetworks Managed Services GmbH  ↔ peer
111 20562 OPEN-PEERI...  Tr/Ac  Open Peering B.V.  ↔ peer
117 21320 GEANT_IAS_VRF GEANT Limited  ↔ peer
126 28329 (no data)  Tr/Ac  G8 NETWORKS LTDA  ↔ peer
130 3292 TDC  Tr/Ac  TDC A/S  ↔ peer

Goiania1
132 19151 WVFIBER-1  Tr/Ac  WV FIBER  ↔ peer

Palo Alto, San Jose, Los Angeles, Dallas, Chicago, Atlanta, Miami, Ashburn, New York City9
140 13030 INIT7  Tr/Ac  Init7 (Switzerland) Ltd.  ↔ peer

Los Angeles, New York City2

London1

Paris1

Frankfurt Am Main1
147 4657 STARHUBINT...  Tr/Ac  StarHub Internet Exchange 2  ↔ peer
154 852 ASN852  Tr/Ac  TELUS Communications Inc.  ↔ peer

Uberlandia1
168 2603 NORDUNET  Tr/Ac  NORDUnet A/S  ↔ peer
176 37100 SEACOM-AS  Tr/Ac  SEACOM Ltd  ↔ peer
179 8447 TELEKOM-AT  Tr/Ac  A1 Telekom Austria AG  ↔ peer

Norwalk1

Kiev1
193 52320 (no data)  Tr/Ac  GlobeNet Cabos Submarinos VZLA, S.A.  ↔ peer
198 14840 (no data)  Tr/Ac  COMMCORP COMUNICACOES LTDA  ↔ peer
201 251 KAIAGLOBAL-AS  Tr/Ac  Kaia Global Networks Ltd.  ↔ peer
204 5650 FRONTIER-FRTR  Tr/Ac  Frontier Communications of America, Inc.  ↔ peer

Hayward, Alexandria2
213 38809 NXGNET-AS-AP  Tr/Ac  Nextgen Networks  ↔ peer
220 8455 ATOM86-AS  Tr/Ac  Schuberg Philis B.V.  ↔ peer
230 34224 NETERRA-AS  Tr/Ac  Neterra Ltd.  ↔ peer
242 18403 FPT-AS-AP  Tr/Ac  The Corporation for Financing & Promoting Technology  ↔ peer
256 1267 ASN-WIND  Tr/Ac  Wind Telecomunicazioni SpA  ↔ peer

Katowice1

Shijiazhuang1
271 24482 SGGS-AS-AP  Tr/Ac  SG.GS  ↔ peer
275 7575 AARNET-AS-AP  Tr/Ac  Alfred Health  ↔ peer

Seattle, Palo Alto, Los Angeles3

Paris1

Melbourne1
277 6667 EUNET-FINLAND  Tr/Ac  Elisa Oyj  ↔ peer

London1

Hoofddorp1

Stockholm1
278 39326 GOSCOMB-AS  Tr/Ac  HighSpeed Office Limited  ↔ peer
285 24748 ATMAN-Pola...  Tr/Ac  ATM S.A.  ↔ peer
294 42708 PORTLANE  Tr/Ac  Portlane AB  ↔ peer

Winnipeg1

Wuhan1
311 4739 INTERNODE-AS  Tr/Ac  iiNet Limited  ↔ peer

Almaty1
313 2381 WISCNET1-AS  Tr/Ac  WiscNet  ↔ peer
327 30844 LIQUID-AS  Tr/Ac  Liquid Telecommunications Ltd  ↔ peer

Seoul1
350 23148 TERRENAP  Tr/Ac  TERRENAP DATA CENTERS, INC.  ↔ peer
367 22652 FIBRENOIRE...  Tr/Ac  Fibrenoire Inc.  ↔ peer

Bangkok1
374 6079 RCN-AS  Tr/Ac  RCN  ↔ peer

Seoul1
389 52720 (no data)  Tr/Ac  WEBFOCO TELECOMUNICACOES LTDA  ↔ peer
416 1916 (no data)  Tr/Ac  Associação Rede Nacional de Ensino e Pesquisa  ↔ peer
426 4181 TDS-AS  Tr/Ac  TDS TELECOM  ↔ peer

Chicago, Atlanta, Ashburn, New York City4

Bangkok1

Seoul1
431 41095 IPTP  Tr/Ac  IPTP LTD  ↔ peer
436 52752 (no data)  Tr/Ac  Vegas Telecom Informática Ltda.  ↔ peer
486 8492 OBIT-AS  Tr/Ac  "OBIT" Ltd.  ↔ peer
508 8468 ENTANET  Tr/Ac  ENTANET International Limited  ↔ peer
514 50304 BLIX  Tr/Ac  Blix Solutions AS  ↔ peer
540 5769 VIDEOTRON  Tr/Ac  Videotron Telecom Ltee  ↔ peer

Seoul1


data sources
geolocation BGP 2010.08.01, 2010.08.02, 2010.08.03, 2010.08.04, 2010.08.05 routeviews eqix, isc, kixp, linx, routeviews2
database 2010.08.30 netacuity
organization whois 0000.00.00 JPNIC, KRNIC, LACNIC
2012.06.29, 2013.10.01, 2014.01.01 AFRINIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, RIPE
topology BGP 2013.11.01, 2013.11.02, 2013.11.03, 2013.11.04, 2013.11.05 ripe rrc00, rrc01, rrc03, rrc04, rrc05, rrc06, rrc07, rrc10, rrc11, rrc12, rrc13, rrc14, rrc15
routeviews eqix, isc, jinx, kixp, linx, routeviews, routeviews2, saoppaulo, sydney, telxatl, wide
2014.03.01, 2014.03.02, 2014.03.03 ripe rrc00, rrc01, rrc03, rrc04, rrc05, rrc06, rrc07, rrc10, rrc11, rrc12, rrc13, rrc14, rrc15
routeviews eqix, isc, jinx, linx, routeviews, routeviews2, routeviews3, saoppaulo, sydney, telxatl, wide
2014.03.04, 2014.03.05 ripe rrc00, rrc01, rrc03, rrc04, rrc05, rrc06, rrc07, rrc10, rrc11, rrc12, rrc13, rrc14, rrc15
routeviews eqix, isc, jinx, kixp, linx, routeviews, routeviews2, routeviews3, saoppaulo, sydney, telxatl, wide
2014.09.01, 2014.09.02, 2014.09.03, 2014.09.04, 2014.09.05 ripe rrc00, rrc01, rrc03, rrc04, rrc05, rrc06, rrc07, rrc10, rrc11, rrc12, rrc13, rrc14, rrc15
routeviews eqix, isc, jinx, kixp, linx, routeviews, routeviews2, routeviews3, routeviews6, saopaulo, sydney, telxatl, wide
2014.12.01, 2014.12.02, 2014.12.03, 2014.12.04, 2014.12.05, 2015.01.01, 2015.01.02, 2015.01.03, 2015.01.04, 2015.01.05 ripe rrc00, rrc01, rrc03, rrc04, rrc05, rrc06, rrc07, rrc10, rrc11, rrc12, rrc13, rrc14, rrc15
routeviews eqix, isc, jinx, kixp, linx, routeviews, routeviews2, routeviews3, saopaulo, sydney, telxatl, wide
2015.02.01, 2015.02.02, 2015.02.03, 2015.02.04, 2015.02.05, 2015.07.01, 2015.07.02, 2015.07.03, 2015.07.04, 2015.07.05 ripe rrc00, rrc01, rrc03, rrc04, rrc05, rrc06, rrc07, rrc10, rrc11, rrc12, rrc13, rrc14, rrc15
routeviews eqix, isc, jinx, kixp, linx, routeviews2, routeviews3, saopaulo, sydney, telxatl, wide
2016.04.01, 2016.04.02, 2016.04.03, 2016.04.04, 2016.04.05, 2016.06.01, 2016.06.02, 2016.06.03, 2016.06.04, 2016.06.05 ripe rrc00, rrc01, rrc03, rrc04, rrc05, rrc06, rrc07, rrc10, rrc11, rrc12, rrc13, rrc14, rrc15, rrc16
routeviews eqix, isc, jinx, kixp, linx, routeviews2, routeviews3, saopaulo, sydney, telxatl, wide
2016.09.01, 2016.09.02, 2016.09.03, 2016.09.04, 2016.09.05 ripe rrc00, rrc01, rrc03, rrc04, rrc05, rrc06, rrc07, rrc10, rrc11, rrc12, rrc13, rrc14, rrc15, rrc16
routeviews eqix, isc, kixp, linx, routeviews2, routeviews3, saopaulo, sydney, telxatl, wide
traceroute 2015.07.01, 2015.07.02 ark ams-nl, ams2-nl, ams5-nl, amw-us, anc-us, arn-se, atl-us, avl-us, aza-us, bcn-es, bed3-us, bfi-us, bjc-us, bjl-gm, bma-se, bre-de, bre2-de, bre3-de, bud2-hu, bwi-us, cbg-uk, cdg-fr, cgk-id, cjj-kr, cmn-ma, cph-dk, dac-bd, dfw-us, dkr-sn, dub-ie, eug-us, fnl-us, gai-us, gig-br, gva-ch, hel-fi, hkg2-cn, hkg3-cn, hlz-nz, hnl-us, iad-us, igx-us, ith-us, jfk-us, kna-cl, lax-us, lej-de, lex-us, mel-au, mnl-ph, mry-us, msy-us, mty-mx, muc-de, nce2-fr, nic-cy, nrt-jp, oak-us, oak2-us, osl-no, osl2-no, pao-us, per-au, pna-es, pry-za, rno-us, san-us, san2-us, san3-us, sao-br, sao2-br, scl-cl, she-cn, sin-sg, sjc2-us, sju-pr, sof-bg, sql-us, syd-au, tll-ee, tpe-tw, vie-at, wbu-us, wlg-nz, wvi-us, ylk-ca, yow-ca, yto-ca, yyz-ca, zrh-ch, zrh2-ch
2015.07.03 ark ams-nl, ams2-nl, ams5-nl, amw-us, anc-us, arn-se, atl-us, avl-us, aza-us, bcn-es, bed3-us, bfi-us, bjc-us, bjl-gm, bma-se, bre-de, bre2-de, bre3-de, bud2-hu, bwi-us, cbg-uk, cdg-fr, cgk-id, cjj-kr, cmn-ma, cph-dk, dac-bd, dfw-us, dkr-sn, dub-ie, eug-us, fnl-us, gai-us, gig-br, gva-ch, hel-fi, hkg2-cn, hkg3-cn, hlz-nz, hnl-us, iad-us, igx-us, ith-us, jfk-us, kna-cl, lax-us, lej-de, lex-us, mel-au, mnl-ph, mry-us, msy-us, muc-de, nce2-fr, nic-cy, nrt-jp, oak-us, oak2-us, osl-no, osl2-no, pao-us, per-au, pna-es, pry-za, rno-us, san-us, san2-us, san3-us, sao-br, sao2-br, scl-cl, she-cn, sin-sg, sjc2-us, sju-pr, sof-bg, sql-us, syd-au, tll-ee, tpe-tw, vie-at, wbu-us, wlg-nz, wvi-us, ylk-ca, yow-ca, yto-ca, yyz-ca, zrh2-ch
2015.07.04, 2015.07.05 ark ams-nl, ams2-nl, ams5-nl, amw-us, anc-us, arn-se, atl-us, avl-us, aza-us, bcn-es, bed3-us, bjc-us, bjl-gm, bma-se, bre-de, bre2-de, bre3-de, bud2-hu, bwi-us, cbg-uk, cdg-fr, cgk-id, cjj-kr, cmn-ma, cph-dk, dac-bd, dfw-us, dkr-sn, dub-ie, eug-us, fnl-us, gai-us, gig-br, gva-ch, hel-fi, hkg2-cn, hkg3-cn, hlz-nz, hnl-us, iad-us, igx-us, ith-us, jfk-us, kna-cl, lax-us, lej-de, lex-us, mel-au, mnl-ph, mry-us, msy-us, nce2-fr, nic-cy, nrt-jp, oak-us, osl-no, osl2-no, pao-us, per-au, pna-es, pry-za, rno-us, san-us, san2-us, san3-us, sao-br, sao2-br, scl-cl, she-cn, sin-sg, sjc2-us, sju-pr, sof-bg, sql-us, syd-au, tll-ee, tpe-tw, vie-at, wbu-us, wlg-nz, wvi-us, ylk-ca, yow-ca, yto-ca, yyz-ca, zrh2-ch

Corrections?

Do you find these relationships to be inconsistent with your own knowledge? We invite those with authoritative ground truth to provide corrections on our relationship inferences for AS 16509.


Support for this work is provided by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (Project N66001-08-C-2029), the National Science Foundation Internet Laboratory for Empirical Network Science (Project CNS-0958547), and Cisco's University Research Program.
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